Source code for unyt.unit_object

A class that represents a unit symbol.


import copy
import itertools
import math
from functools import lru_cache
from numbers import Number as numeric_type

import numpy as np
from sympy import (
from sympy.core.numbers import One

import unyt.dimensions as dims
from unyt._parsing import parse_unyt_expr
from unyt._physical_ratios import speed_of_light_cm_per_s
from unyt.dimensions import (
from unyt.equivalencies import equivalence_registry
from unyt.exceptions import (
from unyt.unit_registry import _lookup_unit_symbol, default_unit_registry
from unyt.unit_systems import _split_prefix

sympy_one = sympify(1)

def _get_latex_representation(expr, registry):
    symbol_table = {}
    for ex in expr.free_symbols:
            symbol_table[ex] = registry.lut[str(ex)][3]
        except KeyError:
            symbol_table[ex] = r"\rm{" + str(ex).replace("_", r"\ ") + "}"

    # invert the symbol table dict to look for keys with identical values
    invert_symbols = {}
    for key, value in symbol_table.items():
        if value not in invert_symbols:
            invert_symbols[value] = [key]

    # if there are any units with identical latex representations, substitute
    # units to avoid  uncanceled terms in the final latex expression.
    for val in invert_symbols:
        symbols = invert_symbols[val]
        for i in range(1, len(symbols)):
            expr = expr.subs(symbols[i], symbols[0])
    prefix = None
    l_expr = expr
    if isinstance(expr, Mul):
        coeffs = expr.as_coeff_Mul()
        if coeffs[0] == 1 or not isinstance(coeffs[0], Number):
            l_expr = coeffs[1]
            l_expr = coeffs[1]
            prefix = Float(coeffs[0], 2)
    latex_repr = latex(

    if prefix is not None:
        latex_repr = latex(prefix, mul_symbol="times") + "\\ " + latex_repr

    if latex_repr == "1":
        return ""
        return latex_repr

class _ImportCache:
    __slots__ = ["_ua", "_uq"]

    def __init__(self):
        self._ua = None
        self._uq = None

    def ua(self):
        if self._ua is None:
            from unyt.array import unyt_array

            self._ua = unyt_array
        return self._ua

    def uq(self):
        if self._uq is None:
            from unyt.array import unyt_quantity

            self._uq = unyt_quantity
        return self._uq

_import_cache_singleton = _ImportCache()

[docs] class Unit: """ A symbolic unit, using sympy functionality. We only add "dimensions" so that sympy understands relations between different units. """ __slots__ = [ "expr", "is_atomic", "base_value", "base_offset", "dimensions", "_latex_repr", "registry", "is_Unit", ] # Set some assumptions for sympy. is_positive = True # make sqrt(m**2) --> m is_commutative = True is_number = False __array_priority__ = 3.0 def __new__( cls, unit_expr=sympy_one, base_value=None, base_offset=0.0, dimensions=None, registry=None, latex_repr=None, ): """ Create a new unit. May be an atomic unit (like a gram) or combinations of atomic units (like g / cm**3). Parameters ---------- unit_expr : Unit object, sympy.core.expr.Expr object, or str The symbolic unit expression. base_value : float The unit's value in yt's base units. base_offset : float The offset necessary to normalize temperature units to a common zero point. dimensions : sympy.core.expr.Expr A sympy expression representing the dimensionality of this unit. It must contain only mass, length, time, temperature and angle symbols. registry : UnitRegistry object The unit registry we use to interpret unit symbols. latex_repr : string A string to render the unit as LaTeX """ unit_cache_key = None # Simplest case. If user passes a Unit object, just use the expr. if hasattr(unit_expr, "is_Unit"): # grab the unit object's sympy expression. unit_expr = unit_expr.expr elif hasattr(unit_expr, "units") and hasattr(unit_expr, "value"): # something that looks like a unyt_array, grab the unit and value if unit_expr.shape != (): raise UnitParseError( "Cannot create a unit from a non-scalar unyt_array, " f"received: {unit_expr}" ) value = unit_expr.value if value == 1: unit_expr = unit_expr.units.expr else: unit_expr = unit_expr.value * unit_expr.units.expr # Parse a text unit representation using sympy's parser elif isinstance(unit_expr, (str, bytes)): if isinstance(unit_expr, bytes): unit_expr = unit_expr.decode("utf-8") # this cache substantially speeds up unit conversions if registry and unit_expr in registry._unit_object_cache: return registry._unit_object_cache[unit_expr] unit_cache_key = unit_expr unit_expr = parse_unyt_expr(unit_expr) # Make sure we have an Expr at this point. if not isinstance(unit_expr, Expr): raise UnitParseError( "Unit representation must be a string or " f"sympy Expr. '{unit_expr}' has type '{type(unit_expr)}'." ) if dimensions is None and unit_expr is sympy_one: dimensions = dimensionless if registry is None: # Caller did not set the registry, so use the default. registry = default_unit_registry # done with argument checking... # see if the unit is atomic. is_atomic = False if isinstance(unit_expr, Symbol): is_atomic = True # # check base_value and dimensions # if base_value is not None: # check that base_value is a float or can be converted to one try: base_value = float(base_value) except ValueError: raise UnitParseError( "Could not use base_value as a float. " f"base_value is '{base_value}' (type {type(base_value)})." ) # check that dimensions is valid if dimensions is not None: _validate_dimensions(dimensions) else: # lookup the unit symbols unit_data = _get_unit_data_from_expr(unit_expr, registry.lut) base_value = unit_data[0] dimensions = unit_data[1] if len(unit_data) > 2: base_offset = unit_data[2] latex_repr = unit_data[3] else: base_offset = 0.0 # Create obj with superclass construct. obj = super().__new__(cls) # Attach attributes to obj. obj.expr = unit_expr obj.is_atomic = is_atomic obj.base_value = base_value obj.base_offset = base_offset obj.dimensions = dimensions obj._latex_repr = latex_repr obj.registry = registry # lets us avoid isinstance calls obj.is_Unit = True # if we parsed a string unit expression, cache the result # for faster lookup later if unit_cache_key is not None: registry._unit_object_cache[unit_cache_key] = obj # Return `obj` so __init__ can handle it. return obj @property def latex_repr(self): """A LaTeX representation for the unit Examples -------- >>> from unyt import g, cm >>> (g/cm**3).units.latex_repr '\\\\frac{\\\\rm{g}}{\\\\rm{cm}^{3}}' """ if self._latex_repr is not None: return self._latex_repr if self.expr.is_Atom: expr = self.expr else: expr = self.expr.copy() self._latex_repr = _get_latex_representation(expr, self.registry) return self._latex_repr @property def units(self): return self def __hash__(self): return int(self.registry.unit_system_id, 16) ^ hash(self.expr) # end sympy conventions def __repr__(self): if self.expr == sympy_one: return "(dimensionless)" # @todo: don't use dunder method? return self.expr.__repr__() def __str__(self): if self.expr == sympy_one: return "dimensionless" unit_str = self.expr.__str__() if unit_str == "degC": return "°C" if unit_str == "delta_degC": return "Δ°C" if unit_str == "degF": return "°F" if unit_str == "delta_degF": return "Δ°F" # @todo: don't use dunder method? return unit_str # # Start unit operations # def __add__(self, u): raise InvalidUnitOperation("addition with unit objects is not allowed") def __radd__(self, u): raise InvalidUnitOperation("addition with unit objects is not allowed") def __sub__(self, u): raise InvalidUnitOperation("subtraction with unit objects is not allowed") def __rsub__(self, u): raise InvalidUnitOperation("subtraction with unit objects is not allowed") def __iadd__(self, u): raise InvalidUnitOperation( "in-place operations with unit objects are not allowed" ) def __isub__(self, u): raise InvalidUnitOperation( "in-place operations with unit objects are not allowed" ) def __imul__(self, u): raise InvalidUnitOperation( "in-place operations with unit objects are not allowed" ) def __itruediv__(self, u): raise InvalidUnitOperation( "in-place operations with unit objects are not allowed" ) def __rmul__(self, u): return self.__mul__(u) def __mul__(self, u): """Multiply Unit with u (Unit object).""" if not getattr(u, "is_Unit", False): data = np.array(u, subok=True) unit = getattr(u, "units", None) if unit is not None: if self.dimensions is logarithmic: raise InvalidUnitOperation( f"Tried to multiply '{self}' and '{unit}'." ) units = unit * self else: units = self if data.dtype.kind not in ("f", "u", "i", "c"): raise InvalidUnitOperation( f"Tried to multiply a Unit object with '{u}' (type {type(u)}). " "This behavior is undefined." ) if data.shape == (): return _import_cache_singleton.uq(data, units, bypass_validation=True) return, units, bypass_validation=True) elif self.dimensions is logarithmic and not u.is_dimensionless: raise InvalidUnitOperation(f"Tried to multiply '{self}' and '{u}'.") elif u.dimensions is logarithmic and not self.is_dimensionless: raise InvalidUnitOperation(f"Tried to multiply '{self}' and '{u}'.") base_offset = 0.0 if self.base_offset or u.base_offset: if u.dimensions in (temperature, angle) and self.is_dimensionless: base_offset = u.base_offset elif self.dimensions in (temperature, angle) and u.is_dimensionless: base_offset = self.base_offset else: raise InvalidUnitOperation( "Quantities with dimensions of angle or units of " "Fahrenheit or Celsius cannot be multiplied." ) return Unit( self.expr * u.expr, base_value=(self.base_value * u.base_value), base_offset=base_offset, dimensions=(self.dimensions * u.dimensions), registry=self.registry, ) def __truediv__(self, u): """Divide Unit by u (Unit object).""" if not isinstance(u, Unit): if isinstance(u, (numeric_type, list, tuple, np.ndarray)): from unyt.array import unyt_quantity return unyt_quantity(1.0, self) / u else: raise InvalidUnitOperation( f"Tried to divide a Unit object by '{u}' (type {type(u)}). " "This behavior is undefined." ) elif self.dimensions is logarithmic and not u.is_dimensionless: raise InvalidUnitOperation(f"Tried to divide '{self}' and '{u}'.") elif u.dimensions is logarithmic and not self.is_dimensionless: raise InvalidUnitOperation(f"Tried to divide '{self}' and '{u}'.") base_offset = 0.0 if self.base_offset or u.base_offset: if self.dimensions in (temperature, angle) and u.is_dimensionless: base_offset = self.base_offset else: raise InvalidUnitOperation( "Quantities with units of Farhenheit " "and Celsius cannot be divided." ) return Unit( self.expr / u.expr, base_value=(self.base_value / u.base_value), base_offset=base_offset, dimensions=(self.dimensions / u.dimensions), registry=self.registry, ) def __rtruediv__(self, u): return u * self**-1 def __pow__(self, p): """Take Unit to power p (float).""" try: p = Rational(str(p)).limit_denominator() except (ValueError, TypeError): raise InvalidUnitOperation( f"Tried to take a Unit object to the power '{p}' (type {type(p)}). " "Failed to cast it to a float." ) if self.dimensions is logarithmic and p != 1.0: raise InvalidUnitOperation(f"Tried to raise '{self}' to power '{p}'") return Unit( self.expr**p, base_value=(self.base_value**p), dimensions=(self.dimensions**p), registry=self.registry, ) def __eq__(self, u): """Test unit equality.""" return ( isinstance(u, Unit) and math.isclose(self.base_value, u.base_value) and math.isclose(self.base_offset, u.base_offset) and ( # use 'is' comparison dimensions to avoid expensive sympy operation self.dimensions is u.dimensions # fall back to expensive sympy comparison or self.dimensions == u.dimensions ) )
[docs] def copy(self, *, deep=False): expr = str(self.expr) base_value = copy.deepcopy(self.base_value) base_offset = copy.deepcopy(self.base_offset) dimensions = copy.deepcopy(self.dimensions) if deep: registry = copy.deepcopy(self.registry) else: registry = copy.copy(self.registry) return Unit(expr, base_value, base_offset, dimensions, registry)
def __deepcopy__(self, memodict=None): return self.copy(deep=True) # # End unit operations #
[docs] def same_dimensions_as(self, other_unit): """Test if the dimensions of *other_unit* are the same as this unit Examples -------- >>> from unyt import Msun, kg, mile >>> Msun.units.same_dimensions_as(kg.units) True >>> Msun.units.same_dimensions_as(mile.units) False """ # test first for 'is' equality to avoid expensive sympy operation if self.dimensions is other_unit.dimensions: return True return (self.dimensions / other_unit.dimensions) == sympy_one
@property def is_dimensionless(self): """Is this a dimensionless unit? Returns ------- True for a dimensionless unit, False otherwise Examples -------- >>> from unyt import count, kg >>> count.units.is_dimensionless True >>> kg.units.is_dimensionless False """ return self.dimensions is sympy_one @property def is_code_unit(self): """Is this a "code" unit? Returns ------- True if the unit consists of atom units that being with "code". False otherwise """ for atom in self.expr.atoms(): if not (str(atom).startswith("code") or atom.is_Number): return False return True
[docs] def list_equivalencies(self): """Lists the possible equivalencies associated with this unit object Examples -------- >>> from unyt import km >>> km.units.list_equivalencies() spectral: length <-> spatial_frequency <-> frequency <-> energy schwarzschild: mass <-> length compton: mass <-> length """ from unyt.equivalencies import equivalence_registry for k, v in equivalence_registry.items(): if self.has_equivalent(k): print(v())
[docs] def has_equivalent(self, equiv): """ Check to see if this unit object as an equivalent unit in *equiv*. Example ------- >>> from unyt import km >>> km.has_equivalent('spectral') True >>> km.has_equivalent('mass_energy') False """ try: this_equiv = equivalence_registry[equiv]() except KeyError: raise KeyError(f'No such equivalence "{equiv}".') old_dims = self.dimensions return old_dims in this_equiv._dims
[docs] def get_base_equivalent(self, unit_system=None): """Create and return dimensionally-equivalent units in a specified base. >>> from unyt import g, cm >>> (g/cm**3).get_base_equivalent('mks') kg/m**3 >>> (g/cm**3).get_base_equivalent('solar') Mearth/AU**3 """ from unyt.unit_registry import _sanitize_unit_system unit_system = _sanitize_unit_system(unit_system, self) try: conv_data = _check_em_conversion( self.units, registry=self.registry, unit_system=unit_system ) um = unit_system.units_map if self.dimensions in um and self.expr == um[self.dimensions]: return self.copy() except MKSCGSConversionError: raise UnitsNotReducible(self.units, unit_system) if any(conv_data): new_units, _ = _em_conversion(self, conv_data, unit_system=unit_system) else: try: new_units = unit_system[self.dimensions] except MissingMKSCurrent: raise UnitsNotReducible(self.units, unit_system) return Unit(new_units, registry=self.registry)
[docs] def get_cgs_equivalent(self): """Create and return dimensionally-equivalent cgs units. Example ------- >>> from unyt import kg, m >>> (kg/m**3).get_cgs_equivalent() g/cm**3 """ return self.get_base_equivalent(unit_system="cgs")
[docs] def get_mks_equivalent(self): """Create and return dimensionally-equivalent mks units. Example ------- >>> from unyt import g, cm >>> (g/cm**3).get_mks_equivalent() kg/m**3 """ return self.get_base_equivalent(unit_system="mks")
[docs] def get_conversion_factor(self, other_units, dtype=None): """Get the conversion factor and offset (if any) from one unit to another Parameters ---------- other_units: unit object The units we want the conversion factor for dtype: numpy dtype The dtype to return the conversion factor as Returns ------- conversion_factor : float old_units / new_units offset : float or None Offset between this unit and the other unit. None if there is no offset. Examples -------- >>> from unyt import km, cm, degree_fahrenheit, degree_celsius >>> km.get_conversion_factor(cm) (100000.0, None) >>> degree_celsius.get_conversion_factor(degree_fahrenheit) (1.7999999999999998, -31.999999999999886) """ return _get_conversion_factor(self, other_units, dtype)
[docs] def latex_representation(self): """A LaTeX representation for the unit Examples -------- >>> from unyt import g, cm >>> (g/cm**3).latex_representation() '\\\\frac{\\\\rm{g}}{\\\\rm{cm}^{3}}' """ return self.latex_repr
[docs] def as_coeff_unit(self): """Factor the coefficient multiplying a unit For units that are multiplied by a constant dimensionless coefficient, returns a tuple containing the coefficient and a new unit object for the unmultiplied unit. Example ------- >>> import unyt as u >>> unit = (u.m**2/ >>> unit 100*m >>> unit.as_coeff_unit() (100.0, m) """ coeff, mul = self.expr.as_coeff_Mul() coeff = float(coeff) ret = Unit( mul, self.base_value / coeff, self.base_offset, self.dimensions, self.registry, ) return coeff, ret
[docs] def simplify(self): """Return a new equivalent unit object with a simplified unit expression >>> import unyt as u >>> unit = (u.m**2/ >>> unit 100*m """ expr = self.expr self.expr = _cancel_mul(expr, self.registry) return self
def _factor_pairs(expr): factors = expr.as_ordered_factors() expanded_factors = [] for f in factors: if f.is_Number: continue base, exp = f.as_base_exp() if exp.q != 1: expanded_factors.append(base ** Mod(exp, 1)) exp = floor(exp) if exp >= 0: f = (base,) * exp else: f = (1 / base,) * abs(exp) expanded_factors.extend(f) return list(itertools.combinations(expanded_factors, 2)) def _create_unit_from_factor(factor, registry): base, exp = factor.as_base_exp() f = registry[str(base)] return Unit(base, f[0], f[2], f[1], registry, f[3]) ** exp def _cancel_mul(expr, registry): pairs_to_consider = _factor_pairs(expr) uncancelable_pairs = set() while len(pairs_to_consider): pair = pairs_to_consider.pop() if pair in uncancelable_pairs: continue u1 = _create_unit_from_factor(pair[0], registry) u2 = _create_unit_from_factor(pair[1], registry) prod = u1 * u2 if prod.dimensions == 1: expr = expr / pair[0] expr = expr / pair[1] value = prod.base_value if value != 1: if value.is_integer(): value = int(value) expr *= value else: uncancelable_pairs.add(pair) pairs_to_consider = _factor_pairs(expr) return expr # # Unit manipulation functions # # map from dimensions in one unit system to dimensions in other system, # canonical unit to convert to in that system, and floating point # conversion factor em_conversions = { ("C", dims.charge_mks): (dims.charge_cgs, "statC", 0.1 * speed_of_light_cm_per_s), ("statC", dims.charge_cgs): (dims.charge_mks, "C", 10.0 / speed_of_light_cm_per_s), ("T", dims.magnetic_field_mks): (dims.magnetic_field_cgs, "G", 1.0e4), ("G", dims.magnetic_field_cgs): (dims.magnetic_field_mks, "T", 1.0e-4), ("A", dims.current_mks): (dims.current_cgs, "statA", 0.1 * speed_of_light_cm_per_s), ("statA", dims.current_cgs): ( dims.current_mks, "A", 10.0 / speed_of_light_cm_per_s, ), ("V", dims.electric_potential_mks): ( dims.electric_potential_cgs, "statV", 1.0e-8 * speed_of_light_cm_per_s, ), ("statV", dims.electric_potential_cgs): ( dims.electric_potential_mks, "V", 1.0e8 / speed_of_light_cm_per_s, ), ("Ω", dims.resistance_mks): ( dims.resistance_cgs, "statohm", 1.0e9 / (speed_of_light_cm_per_s**2), ), ("statohm", dims.resistance_cgs): ( dims.resistance_mks, "Ω", 1.0e-9 * speed_of_light_cm_per_s**2, ), } em_conversion_dims = [k[1] for k in em_conversions.keys()] def _em_conversion(orig_units, conv_data, to_units=None, unit_system=None): """Convert between E&M & MKS base units. If orig_units is a CGS (or MKS) E&M unit, conv_data contains the corresponding MKS (or CGS) unit and scale factor converting between them. This must be done by replacing the expression of the original unit with the new one in the unit expression and multiplying by the scale factor. """ conv_unit, canonical_unit, scale = conv_data if conv_unit is None: conv_unit = canonical_unit new_expr = scale * canonical_unit.expr if unit_system is not None: # we don't know the to_units, so we get it directly from the # conv_data to_units = Unit(conv_unit.expr, registry=orig_units.registry) new_units = Unit(new_expr, registry=orig_units.registry) conv = new_units.get_conversion_factor(to_units) return to_units, conv @lru_cache(maxsize=128, typed=False) def _check_em_conversion(unit, to_unit=None, unit_system=None, registry=None): """Check to see if the units contain E&M units This function supports unyt's ability to convert data to and from E&M electromagnetic units. However, this support is limited and only very simple unit expressions can be readily converted. This function tries to see if the unit is an atomic base unit that is present in the em_conversions dict. If it does not contain E&M units, the function returns an empty tuple. If it does contain an atomic E&M unit in the em_conversions dict, it returns a tuple containing the unit to convert to and scale factor. If it contains a more complicated E&M unit and we are trying to convert between CGS & MKS E&M units, it raises an error. """ em_map = () if unit == to_unit or unit.dimensions not in em_conversion_dims: return em_map if unit.is_atomic: prefix, unit_wo_prefix = _split_prefix(str(unit), unit.registry.lut) else: prefix, unit_wo_prefix = "", str(unit) if (unit_wo_prefix, unit.dimensions) in em_conversions: em_info = em_conversions[unit_wo_prefix, unit.dimensions] em_unit = Unit(prefix + em_info[1], registry=registry) if to_unit is None: cmks_in_unit = current_mks in unit.dimensions.atoms() cmks_in_unit_system = unit_system.units_map[current_mks] cmks_in_unit_system = cmks_in_unit_system is not None if cmks_in_unit and cmks_in_unit_system: em_map = (unit_system[unit.dimensions], unit, 1.0) else: em_map = (None, em_unit, em_info[2]) elif to_unit.dimensions == em_unit.dimensions: em_map = (to_unit, em_unit, em_info[2]) if em_map: return em_map if unit_system is None: from unyt.unit_systems import unit_system_registry unit_system = unit_system_registry["mks"] for unit_atom in unit.expr.atoms(): if unit_atom.is_Number: continue bu = str(unit_atom) budims = Unit(bu, registry=registry).dimensions try: if str(unit_system[budims]) == bu: continue except MissingMKSCurrent: raise MKSCGSConversionError(unit) return em_map def _get_conversion_factor(old_units, new_units, dtype): """ Get the conversion factor between two units of equivalent dimensions. This is the number you multiply data by to convert from values in `old_units` to values in `new_units`. Parameters ---------- old_units: str or Unit object The current units. new_units : str or Unit object The units we want. dtype: NumPy dtype The dtype of the conversion factor Returns ------- conversion_factor : float `old_units / new_units` offset : float or None Offset between the old unit and new unit. """ if old_units.dimensions != new_units.dimensions: raise UnitConversionError( old_units, old_units.dimensions, new_units, new_units.dimensions ) old_basevalue = old_units.base_value old_baseoffset = old_units.base_offset new_basevalue = new_units.base_value new_baseoffset = new_units.base_offset ratio = old_basevalue / new_basevalue if old_baseoffset == 0 and new_baseoffset == 0: return (ratio, None) else: # the dimensions are either temperature or angle (lat, lon) if old_units.dimensions == temperature: # for degree Celsius, back out the SI prefix scaling from # offset scaling for degree Fahrenheit old_prefix, _ = _split_prefix(str(old_units), old_units.registry.lut) if old_prefix != "": old_baseoffset /= old_basevalue new_prefix, _ = _split_prefix(str(new_units), new_units.registry.lut) if new_prefix != "": new_baseoffset /= new_basevalue return ratio, ratio * old_baseoffset - new_baseoffset # # Helper functions # def _get_unit_data_from_expr(unit_expr, unit_symbol_lut): """ Grabs the total base_value and dimensions from a valid unit expression. Parameters ---------- unit_expr: Unit object, or sympy Expr object The expression containing unit symbols. unit_symbol_lut: dict Provides the unit data for each valid unit symbol. """ # Now for the sympy possibilities if isinstance(unit_expr, Number): if unit_expr is sympy_one: return (1.0, sympy_one) return (float(unit_expr), sympy_one) if isinstance(unit_expr, Symbol): return _lookup_unit_symbol(, unit_symbol_lut) if isinstance(unit_expr, Pow): unit_data = _get_unit_data_from_expr(unit_expr.args[0], unit_symbol_lut) power = unit_expr.args[1] if isinstance(power, Symbol): raise UnitParseError(f"Invalid unit expression '{unit_expr}'.") conv = float(unit_data[0] ** power) unit = unit_data[1] ** power return (conv, unit) if isinstance(unit_expr, Mul): base_value = 1.0 dimensions = 1 for expr in unit_expr.args: unit_data = _get_unit_data_from_expr(expr, unit_symbol_lut) base_value *= unit_data[0] dimensions *= unit_data[1] return (float(base_value), dimensions) raise UnitParseError( "Cannot parse for unit data from '%s'. Please supply" " an expression of only Unit, Symbol, Pow, and Mul" "objects." % str(unit_expr) ) def _validate_dimensions(dimensions): if isinstance(dimensions, Mul): for dim in dimensions.args: _validate_dimensions(dim) elif isinstance(dimensions, Symbol): if dimensions not in base_dimensions: raise UnitParseError( f"Dimensionality expression contains an unknown symbol '{dimensions}'." ) elif isinstance(dimensions, Pow): if not isinstance(dimensions.args[1], Number): raise UnitParseError( "Dimensionality expression '%s' contains a " "unit symbol as a power." % dimensions ) elif isinstance(dimensions, (Add, Number)): if not isinstance(dimensions, One): raise UnitParseError( "Only dimensions that are instances of Pow, " "Mul, or symbols in the base dimensions are " "allowed. Got dimensions '%s'" % dimensions ) elif not isinstance(dimensions, Basic): raise UnitParseError(f"Bad dimensionality expression '{dimensions}'.")
[docs] def define_unit( symbol, value, tex_repr=None, offset=None, prefixable=False, registry=None ): """ Define a new unit and add it to the specified unit registry. Parameters ---------- symbol : string The symbol for the new unit. value : tuple or :class:`unyt.array.unyt_quantity` The definition of the new unit in terms of some other units. For example, one would define a new "mph" unit with ``(1.0, "mile/hr")`` or with ``1.0*unyt.mile/`` tex_repr : string, optional The LaTeX representation of the new unit. If one is not supplied, it will be generated automatically based on the symbol string. offset : float, optional The default offset for the unit. If not set, an offset of 0 is assumed. prefixable : boolean, optional Whether or not the new unit can use SI prefixes. Default: False registry : :class:`unyt.unit_registry.UnitRegistry` or None The unit registry to add the unit to. If None, then defaults to the global default unit registry. If registry is set to None then the unit object will be added as an attribute to the top-level :mod:`unyt` namespace to ease working with the newly defined unit. See the example below. Examples -------- >>> from unyt import day >>> two_weeks = 14.0*day >>> one_day = 1.0*day >>> define_unit("two_weeks", two_weeks) >>> from unyt import two_weeks >>> print((3*two_weeks)/one_day) 42.0 dimensionless """ import unyt from unyt.array import _iterable, unyt_quantity if registry is None: registry = default_unit_registry if symbol in registry: raise RuntimeError( f"Unit symbol '{symbol}' already exists in the provided registry" ) if not isinstance(value, unyt_quantity): if _iterable(value) and len(value) == 2: value = unyt_quantity(value[0], value[1], registry=registry) else: raise RuntimeError( '"value" needs to be a quantity or ' "(value, unit) tuple!" ) base_value = float(value.in_base(unit_system="mks")) dimensions = value.units.dimensions registry.add( symbol, base_value, dimensions, prefixable=prefixable, tex_repr=tex_repr, offset=offset, ) if registry is default_unit_registry: u = Unit(symbol, registry=registry) setattr(unyt, symbol, u)
NULL_UNIT = Unit()